وضعیت حقوقی قربانیان ناپدید سازی اجباری اشخاص با توجه ویژه به زنان و کودکان

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده زنان،دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

2 دانشگاه الزهرا(س)

3 مدرس دانشگاه

چکیده

ناپدید سازی اجباری اشخاص یکی از جرائم بسیار جدی و در موارد متعدد جنایتی بین‌المللی است که عمدتاً توسط دولت‌ها علیه مخالفان انجام می‌گردد. این پدیده که هم در زمان جنگ و هم در زمان صلح قابلیت ارتکاب دارد، عمدتاً شهروندان را هدف خشونت قرار می­دهد و با ایجاد حالت عدم اطلاع و عدم اطمینان از وجود مجنی‏علیه، او و خانواده‏اش را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهد. بر این اساس در نوشتار حاضر ضمن مفروض قلمداد کردن مفهوم ناپدید سازی اجباری، فرضیه مقاله با رویکردی توصیفی به دنبال اثبات این گزاره است که اگرچه درصد کمتری از قربانیان مستقیم این جرم را زنان و کودکان تشکیل می‏دهند، لکن بیشترین صدمات و آسیب­ها را از ارتکاب این جنایت زنان و کودکان متحمل می‏شوند. درواقع پس از بررسی عملکرد نهادهای قضایی و شبه قضایی بین‌المللی اثبات می‌گردد که ارتکاب ناپدید سازی اجباری اشخاص، به طرز قابل‌توجهی قربانیان را از حق­های بشری متعددی ازجمله حق حیات، حق افراد به شناسایی شخصیت حقوقی، حق منع شکنجه و رفتارهای غیرانسانی و حق به دانستن حقیقت محروم می‏نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

.

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam ahmadi Nejad 1
  • elahe marandi 2
  • yaser aminalroaya 3
1 .
2 .
3 University lecturer
چکیده [English]

Enforced Disappearances of Persons is one of the very serious crimes, and in some cases, it is international crimes which may be done by governments against their opponents. This crime which may be done both in wartime and in peacetime, puts civilians increasingly targets of violence, and affects their families by creating an unknowing and uncertainty state of the existence of the victim. Accordingly, in the present paper, while assuming the notion of forced disappearance, the hypothesis of the paper seeks to prove that, although a small percentage of the direct victims of this crime are women and children, the women and children incurred greatest damage and injuries from committing the crimes. Indeed, after examining the procedures of judicial and quasi-judicial international institutions, it is proven that the commission of the forced disappearance of individuals significantly deprives victims from many human rights such as the right to life, the right of individuals to identify the legal personality, the right to prevent torture and inhuman treatment, and the right to know the truth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances of Persons
  • women
  • children
  • Victim
  • “Human Rights
  1. احمدی‌نژاد، مریم(1396). تحلیل حقوقی جنایت ناپدید سازی اجباری اشخاص در حقوق بین­الملل به‌عنوان ناقض ماده 1 اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر. مجله حقوقی بین­المللی، (34) 75، پاییز زمستان.
  2. زمانی، سید قاسم، هاله حسینی اکبر نژاد (1388). اصل صلاحیت جهانی در آینه دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی. پژوهش حقوق و سیاست. (11)26، بهار و تابستان، ص 205-206.
English resources

Books and Articles

 

  1. Bellal, Annyssa(2015). The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014.  United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  2. Dewhirst, Polly & Kapur, Amrita (2015). The Disappeared and Invisible Revealing the Enduring Impact of Enforced Disappearance on Women. International Center for Transitional Justice.
  3. Grover, Sonja C.  (2013). The Enforced Disappearance of Children as Torture, The Torture of Children During Armed Conflicts, 24 October, Springer.
  4. Harvey-Blankenship, Michele & Pham, Phuong N., & Shigekane, Rachel(2010-12). Genetic tracing, disappeared children and justice. UNICEF. Harvard University.
  5. Martin, Claudia (2007). Catching Up with the Past:Recent Decisions of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights Addressing Gross Human Rights Violations Perpetrated During the 1970-1980s. Human Rights Law Review (7)4, 774-792.
  6. Morsink, Johanne(2011). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, Drafting, and Intent. USA:University of Pennsylvania Press.
  7. Prosecutor’s v. Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, Saif Al‐Islam Gaddafi, and Abdullah Al‐Senussi16 May, 2011 ICC‐01/11.
  8. Schindel, Estela, & Colombo, Pamela (2014).Space and the Memories of Violence: Landscapes of Erasure, Disappearance and Exception. Palgrave Macmillan Memory Studies.
  9. Shafiq, Aysha (2013). The War on Terror and the Enforced Disappearances in Pakistan. Human Rights Review, (14)4, pp 387–404.
  10.  Shetreet, Shimon (2014). The Culture of Judicial Independence: Rule of Law and World Peace, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  11. The Working Group and the Committee on Enforced Disappearance(2011). General Comment on the right to recognition as a person before the law in the context of enforced disappearances.
  12. Vitkauskaitė-Meurice, Dalia & Žilinskas, Justinas(2010). The Concept Of Enforced Disappearances In International Law.  Lithuania: Mykolas Romeris University, (120)2.
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  14. Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance(1992). UN Doc. A/47/49.
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  16. General Assembly resolution (18 December 1992). A/RES/47/132.
  17. General Assembly resolution (20 December 1978). Disappeared Persons, A/RES/33/173.
  18. General Assembly resolution (6 November 1974). 3220 (XXIX).
  19. Human Rights Committee(1981). Views of 21 July 1983, Communication No. 107/1981, CCPR/C/19/D/107/1981.
  20. Human Rights Council (2016). United Nations General Assembly, Enforced Disappearance in Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir, A/HRC/31/NGO/1, 16 February.
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  22. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights(2006). Promotion and protection of all human rights, Study on the right to the truth, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, E/CN.4/2006/91.
  23. UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances(2012). General comment on women affected by enforced disappearances.
  24. UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances(2013). General comment on children and enforced disappearances.
 

Cases

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  2. Amnesty International v. Sudan (1999). African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Communications No. 48/90, 50/91, 52/91, 89/93.
  3. Bamaca-Velasquez v. Guatemala(2000).  Series C, Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACrtHR).
  4. Blake v. Guatemala(1996). Preliminary Objections,  Series C, Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACrtHR).
  5. Bleier v. Uruguay(1982). Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 30/1978.
  6. Cyprus v. Turkey (2001). European Court of Human Rights, Judgment of 10 May 2001, Application No. 25781/94.
  7. Dissenting Opinion of Judge Cancado Trindade(2005). Judgment in Serrano Cruz Sisters Case, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 9 September of 2005.
  8. El-Masri v. the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia(2012). European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), Judgment on 13 December 2012, Application no. 39630/09.
  9. Godínez-Cruz v. Honduras(1989).  Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACrtHR), Series C 5.
  10. Goiburú et al. v. Paraguay(2006). Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACrtHR), Judgment of 22 September 2006, Series C.
  11. Hisham Abushaala v. Libya(2013). Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 1913/2009, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/107/D/1913/2009.
  12. Kurt v. Turkey(1998). Application no. 15/1997/799/1002, 25 May 1998, European Court of Human Rights (ECHR).
  13. Mohamed Aboufaied v. Libya(2012). Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 1782/2008, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/104/D/1782/2008.
  14. Río Negro Massacres v. Guatemala (2012). Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACrtHR).
  15. Sanjuan Arevalo v. Colombia(1989). Human Rights Committee, Communication No. 181/1984.
  16. Serrano-Cruz Sisters v. El Salvador(2005). Inter-American Court of Human Rights(IACrtHR),  Judgment of 1 March 2005.
  17. Taş v. Turkey(2000). European Court of Human Rights, Application no. 24396/94.
  18. Tiu Tojín v. Guatemala(2008). Inter-American Court of Human Rights(IACrtHR).
  19. Varnava and Others v. Turkey(2009). European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), Judgment on 18 September 2009, Applications nos. 16064/90, 16065/90, 16066/90, 16068/90, 16069/90, 16070/90, 16071/90, 16072/90 and 16073/90.
  20. Velasquez Rodriguez v. Honduras(1988). Judgment of July 29, 1988, Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACrtHR), (Ser. C) No. 4 .
  21. Wanis El Abani v. Libya(2010). Human Rights Committee, Communication No.1640/2007.