نگرشی بر مشارکت زنان در عرصه علم و تکنولوژی در جهان

نوع مقاله: علمی-تخصصی

نویسنده

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

قرن حاضر، قرنی است که در آن نقش علم و تکنولوژی به‌طور روزافزونی در تمام جنبه‌های زندگی تجلی‌یافته است. باور عمومی بر این است که علم و تکنولوژی پاسخگوی بسیاری از مشکلات جهانی خواهد بود و نقش آن برای رفاه زندگی بشر بسیار حیاتی است. در این میان نقش نیمی از جمعیت جهان، یعنی زنان، در این فرآیند چندان روشن نیست. هر چند انتظارمی‌رود تکنولوژی ابزاری برای افزایش و تقویت مشارکت اجتماعی زنان باشد. در همه جای جهان، زنان عموماً، حضور قاطعی در عرصه‌های علم و تکنولوژی ندارند. از جمله دلایل این موضوع، اول دیدگاه خود زنان درباره‌ی نقش و عملکردشان در جامعه و دوم، انتظارات جامعه از مشارکت آنان است. در بخش آموزشی، گرچه بخش مهمی از دانشجویان در سطح کارشناسی را در بسیاری از کشورهای جهان زنان تشکیل‌می‌دهند، اما شواهد حاکی است که به مرور در سطوح بالاتر، تعداد زنان کم و کمترشده و در سطوح بالای علمی تعداد آن‌ها بسیار اندک می‌شود. به گونه‌ای که هر چه به سطوح بالاتر علمی نزدیک شویم از تعداد زنان کاسته‌می‌شود. افزون بر این، تفاوت‌های جنسیتی در انتخاب رشته‌های تحصیلی نیز مشاهده‌می‌شود. زنان بیشتر به سراغ رشته‌های هنری و علوم اجتماعی می‌روند و کمتر در رشته‌های علوم طبیعی و مهندسی وارد می‌شوند. در صنعت عمدتاً زنان به سمت مشاغلی که تاکید بر نیروی فیزیکی دارد گرایش‌دارند و کمتر به سراغ مشاغلی که بر مهارت‌های فنی و فکر خلاق متکی است می‌روند. این مقاله به بررسی ادبیات موجود در این زمینه می‌پردازد و نشان‌می‌دهد که چگونه نقش زنان در کاربرد و پیشبرد علم و تکنولوژی می‌تواند به بهبود وضعیت جامعه بیانجامد. همچنین این مقاله درصدد است نشان‌دهد که چگونه علم و تکنولوژی می‌تواند برموقعیت زنان اثرگذارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Women's Participation in Science and Technology in the World

نویسنده [English]

  • Firouzeh Azizi
Assistant Professor, Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

The 21st century is witnessing the ever-increasing role of science and technology in all aspects of life. Science and technology offer the prospect of finding solutions for many global problems with a vital role for human beings. Women's role is not so clear in this process, despite constituting half of the population, women are an underutilized talent. Women, in general do not have a strong presence in science and technology, as important factors for development. This is attributed to two broad issues: first, women’s perception of their own role and function in society, and second, society’s expectation of their contribution. Although women constitute a large proportion of undergraduate students in many countries, the number decreases at the higher levels and very few reach the top scientific positions. Gender difference also exists in the selection of academic fields. Women are more inclined towards the arts and social sciences than the natural sciences and engineering. In industry, women are more involved in jobs demanding physical labor, and very few are in the most rewarding positions that demand technical skills and creative minds. This paper reviews the limited literature available, and explores how women’s role in advancing and using science and technology can improve society. It also shows how science and technology impact, women' position.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Woman Participation
  • Gender Inequalities
  • Women Educational Choices
  • Women Job Situation
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